Turbo sizing calculator

Choosing a performance turbocharger starts with a horsepower target. Each turbocharger is designed to support a specific range of horsepower and engine displacement. If a turbo is too large for your engine, you will have a lot of turbo lag, and if a turbo is too small for your engine you may not reach your horsepower target. The resources our engineers have created in these pages will help guide you through the process.

Boost adviser is a program that is designed to help you select a turbocharger that meets your horsepower and engine requirements. Enter the requested inputs and let Boost Adviser find turbo matches for you. This new feature also maps points on different compressor maps of the matched turbos. It also guides you to the nearest distributors available to buy a turbo. With over 35 Garrett turbos to choose, how do you select the right one? This provides some insight into the complicated process.

Turbocharging at Elevation Have you ever tried to exert yourself at elevation and notice you become out of breath more quickly than at sea level? The amount of power that a diesel engine makes is directly proportional to the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder and that fuel needs sufficient air for complete combustion. For smoke-free performance, the engine needs about 18 times more air by mass than fuel. So clearly, as more fuel is added, additional air needs to be added also.

In most applications, the stock turbo has some additional capacity for increased power, but as the compressor reaches the choke limit maximum flowthe turbo speed increases rapidly, the efficiency drops dramatically, and the compressor discharge temperature ramps up very quickly.

The lower efficiency means that more turbine power is required to reach the same boost causing higher back pressure in the exhaust manifold. This can usually be seen on an engine with a performance chip at the highest power setting and maybe an intake or exhaust upgrade. Under these conditions, the stock turbo is running on borrowed time.

When the modifications get more serious, a bigger turbo is a must have to compliment even more fuel. In order to decide on the appropriate turbocharger for your diesel engine, the very first thing that needs to be established is the power target. Since turbochargers are sized by how much air they can deliver and airflow is proportional to engine power, a realistic horsepower goal is critical to make the right choice.

The concept of a realistic goal needs to be stressed in order to ensure maximum performance and satisfaction.When it comes to turbochargers, everyone seems to be an expert after they install their first turbo. Countless times we have seen people giving very detailed advice to others when they have very little experience themselves. Turbochargers are one of the parts of your vehicle that greatly determine how it performs.

Last year we put together an article that highlights some of the pitfalls associated with doing research on forums, and how altitude affects turbocharger performance. We figured we would follow that article up and explain what a compressor map is and how to read it. By analyzing compressor maps, you can start narrowing down the size of the compressor you need for your application. If you have never seen a compressor map, it may be difficult to make any sense of it. There is a lot of information contained within the map and before we get into the map itself, lets identify the two axis.

The bottom axis represents the corrected mass flow. This is how much air the turbocharger flows per unit of time.

turbo sizing calculator

This could be rated in Kilograms per second or pounds per minute these are the two most common. Vertical Axis. The vertical axis represents the pressure ratio of the compressor. It is calculated by taking the absolute outlet pressure and dividing by the absolute inlet pressure.

turbo sizing calculator

Note, most gauges read in gauge pressure i. Due to how this is calculated, there are no units associated with this axis. If you are familiar with a topographical map, then the data may look familiar.

As the efficiency increases, the rings get smaller and smaller. Within the turbocharger industry, these rings are called efficiency islands.

The efficiency of a turbocharger is measured by its ability to compress the air without adding excessive heat. The higher the efficiency, the cooler the outlet temperature for a given boost pressure it will still be above ambient temperature. These are both 76mm turbochargers. The difference is the one on the right has a map-width enhancement groove. If you notice, at lower pressure ratios, both turbochargers flow about the same, but as the pressure ratio increases, there becomes a distinct difference between the two.

There are critical areas to be aware of on a compressor map. The surge line of a compressor map is the left hand boundary. This line represents the maximum amount of pressure the turbocharger can produce while flowing the least amount of mass air. As the throttle is lifted while under load, the pressure that is built up in the piping system needs to be discharged.You will find one of the largest ranges of racing and performance turbochargers and intercoolers from 1.

Standard and reverse rotation turbo options for symmetrical fitments and a full line of intercooler cores.

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Garrett is a pioneer when it comes to the racing and performance industry. We are dedicated to engineering and manufacturing the safest, and highest performing turbochargers and accessories in the industry. For decades we have provided boosting solutions that have helped race teams win races, championships, and world records. Our engineers have continued to to develop new products for racing enthusiasts that offer a broad range of boosting solutions for almost any gas engine.

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From 1. Bar and plate technology combined with high density offset fins help reduce more heat than original cores. This allows for increased heat saturation point and less engine derate. Search Products Now. Garrett — Advancing Motion selects only the best distributor partners on each continent to uphold the values associated with the Garrett brand. Learn More. The Garrett Boost Adviser allows anyone to perform a turbo match quickly and easily by entering a few key parameters.

We do the math and sort the turbochargers to find you the best turbo that meets your needs. It also guides you to the nearest distributors who you can contact to refine your selection. Find A Turbo Now. We are here to help you become a great brand ambassador for us and for the entire motorsports industry wherever it ends up taking you.

In many respects, a racing turbo is closer to aerospace than conventional automotive engineering. While exact design will depend on race rules and vehicle design, the turbo is much lighter than its commercial counterpart.

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Read More. Garrett - Advancing Motion. If you are looking for a little extra power for your ecoboost engine, Garrett PowerMax turbos and intercoolers are a great place to look. For more information check it out here: bit. See More See Less. Comment on Facebook. It features a built in flange for Tial 44mm wastegate on the turbine housing. High flow, less exhaust backpressure, more precise boost control, even more power! Have a G or G?

DM us your dyno graph and we will feature your build on the Garrett pages. Apr The Official GarrettMotion.Horsepower is related to airflow and airflow is limited by the pumping capacity of a given engine displacement. Given a certain engine displacement and certain other factors you can calculate how much boost will be required to achieve a stated level of horsepower.

Then it's off to the compressor maps to check airflow v. In choosing a particular turbo you need to know how many Pounds Per Minute or CFM the turbo compressor map indicates for a particular pressure ratio boost pressure. You cannot make more horsepower that your turbocharger can supply For instance if your turbo peaks at horsepower about 44 pounds per minute it simply is not going to make any more horsepower no matter what the calculator says.

Above is the Bonneville Bullet, back from Bonneville If you are just credit-carding your way to glory you can skip this calculator. If you're a builder, fabricator, or a "designer", whatever that means, then sit down and do the math.

If you don't do the math you will always pick the wrong turbo for your engine. We can't tell you how many people have called us up telling us they would be happy with 8 pounds of boost without knowing if the turbo they were planning on would have enough airflow at 8 psi to even meet stock hp levels. For a comprehensive look at turbocharging we recommend Jeff Hartman's book. It has extensive formulas and plenty of up to date pictures to guide your project on its way.

It covers every aspect of turbocharging. Probably a good idea to read up on things before you start cutting, welding, and spending money. Boost Required for "X" Horsepower Calculator. Enter numbers i. Do not enter the colon : B.

A typical entry is To run calculations on this use our Intercooler Calculator. Volumetric Efficiency Volumetric efficiency can be above or below 1.

Turbo Calculator: How to Match a Turbocharger to Your Cars Engine

PSI Boost Required. Boost and Airflow Calculator Peak Horsepower. Brake Specific Fuel Consumption. Charge Temperature Post intercooler. Typically intercoolers are used to drop compressed air discharge temperartures. Volumetric efficiency can be above or below 1.Selecting the proper turbocharger for your engine involves many considerations.

Not only are the facts about your specific engine necessary, but equally important is the intended use for that engine. The most important approach to these considerations is a realistic mindset. However, that may be unrealistic inside of the additional collection of modifications you intend to do. A percent power increase to hp is possible in many engines, but increases like that are reserved for competition engines that have an array of additional modifications, both internal and external, that all work together to achieve this level of power.

One of the most important factors in determining which turbocharger is most appropriate is to have your target horsepower in mind. The application and intended use of the vehicle is extremely important as well.

An autocross car, for example, would require a rapid boost rise for fast acceleration, whereas a Bonneville car running long straights is more concerned with horsepower at higher engine speeds. Indy cars frequently adjust the turbo for short tracks versus long tracks because of how critical the turbo match is to optimize flow at specific engine and vehicle speeds.

Tractor pull applications will likely see the highest engine speeds right at the start of competition, and as the pull progresses, the load is progressively increased much like a prony brake until the engine is maximum loaded down by the pulling sled. These different uses require different turbo matches. The term Volumetric Efficiency, or VE, is a very important term and concept to understand. Forced-air induction is all about increasing VE.

Understanding Compressor Maps – Sizing A Turbocharger

But what is Volumetric Efficiency exactly? An engine has a fixed displacement, for example, cubic inches. That displacement will theoretically flow ci every two engine revolutions a four-stroke engine must rotate twice for all cylinders to complete all four cycles.

In theory, there would be a linear relation to airflow and engine RPM where doubling the revolutions per minute would double the air displaced by the engine. If an engine were able to flow exactly as much air during operation as the theoretical calculation says is possible, that engine would have a VE of percent. However, in reality that rarely happens.

While there are some engines that achieve percent or higher VE, most do not.

Choosing the right Turbo

The common methods used to increase VE in naturally aspirated engines are things like larger valves, more valves per cylinder, improved intake manifold designs, enhanced valve timing using different camshafts, free flowing exhaust systems and more.

But perhaps the most limiting factor to VE is time. The critical factor here is simply how long the intake valve can be held open.

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The calculation for percent VE assumes a full cylinder charge of air without regard to time. During actual engine operation, the intake valve is only opened for a short time. The higher the RPM, the less time the intake valve is off its seat. Therefore actual VE is not a constant. If we did a simple calculation to express, in real time, just how long an intake valve is opened, it places the challenges to make horsepower into perspective. The intake valve would only be opened for 0.

The reduction in valve open time is inversely proportional to engine speed. This same engine now operating at 6, rpm would only have the intake valve opened for half as long, or 0. So, hot-rodders have been working for years to maximize the time we have.

The reason turbocharging has such a dramatic impact to engine performance can be better understood using this concept of volumetric efficiency. In a turbocharged engine, time still limits how long the intake valve is open, but if the intake pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure boostedthen we can force more total air volume in during the valve opening.

The quality of that air is improved for combustion purposes because its density has also been increased.Department of Transpertation. When looking for the right turbocharger for your car or truck many of us are stumped by what all the numbers mean when shopping for a turbo. Technically, it is defined as:. The inlet or, for compressor housings, the discharge cross-sectional area divided by the radius from the turbo centerline to the centroid of that area.

Here is a great example of what this looks like. They are both T3 inlet, divided housings. The smaller one is a. Its VERY easy to see the difference in sizes. You go too big and you actually loose flow because you loose the scavenging effect. Go to small and you bottleneck the exhaust and loose power. If you go to large for your size motor the turbo will be lazy and slow reacting.

Go to small and the turbo will be choked up in the upper RPM powerband. Now for the hard part. This is the hard part. To big and the turbo is lazy. To small and you lose your power potential, which is the whole reason your paying the big bucks to upgrade your turbo in the first place.

Go to the Internet. The beauty of the Internet is that you realize that most everything has already been done before. Someone out there has probably installed your same turbo and you can find a review written by him or her about how it behaves on your particular engine.

Also you can email them and ask them how responsive the set-up is and when they are starting to see boost, and when they see full boost. When in doubt, pick the one in the middle.

turbo sizing calculator

What I mean by this is most manufacturers offer several housings for each turbo. Choosing the one in the middle will give the turbo a little of both worlds. You will most likely not be upset with the outcome. Take note. Be warned though. The turbo may be lazy in its response.

Hopefully this article gives you a general idea of what the Area Ratio of a turbo is and how it affects power and response. Be sure to like enginebasics. Want to know more about your particular Make and Model vehicle?

All of these vehicles are covered in the tech, maintenance and repair articles found above. Enginebasics is the wiki or wikipedia of car part, repair, how to and tuning information.

Let us be the class for your automotive learning. Below are just a few of the articles found here on enginebasics. Dynamic Compression Air to Air Vs. Special thanks to:.This interactive, free tax calculator provides accurate insight into how much you may get back this year or what you may owe before you file.

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